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Series of photographs for the book -The Art of acclimating plants, the garden of the Villa Thuret - by Catherine Ducatillion and Landy Blanc-Chabaud, published by Editions Quae. © INRA, SLAGMULDER Christian

Plants also feel, move and communicate!

Embolie gazeuse dans une feuille de noyer. Vue microscopique d'une feuille de noyer montrant une bulle d'air (embolie) dans un vaisseau d'une petite veine. Cette embolie se forme en période de sécheresse et peut entrainer le dessèchement de la feuille.. © Inra, COCHARD Hervé

Sécheresse ou gel : les cris d’alarme des plantes avant l’embolie

Les progrès technologiques permettent de déceler des sons émis par les plantes lors d’épisodes critiques de leur vie, tels que l’embolie gazeuse. Les chercheurs sont à l’écoute…

By Pascale Mollier
Updated on 09/22/2014
Published on 09/22/2014

Les chercheurs ont enregistré les sons brefs émis dans les ultrasons par les arbres lors de la pénétration de bulles d'air dans les vaisseaux. Grâce à une méthode originale de préparation de fines tranches de bois qui reproduit les conditions de stress hydrique, les chercheurs ont montré que chaque entrée d'une bulle d'air se traduit par un "click".

Ces résultats sont susceptibles de conduire à des applications pour suivre la progression des phénomènes de cavitation et d'embolie gazeuse. Un sujet à fort enjeu dans le contexte de réchauffement du climat auquel sont soumises les forêts.

La sécheresse peut conduire à l’embolie gazeuse

Les plantes sont sensibles à la sécheresse car la plupart n’ont pas de grandes réserves d’eau : une plante perd par transpiration au niveau des feuilles quasiment toute l’eau qu’elle puise dans le sol. C’est du reste cette transpiration foliaire qui est le moteur du flux de sève ascendante, dans le xylème.

Lorsque l’eau du sol vient à manquer, la plante se défend en fermant ses stomates, les minuscules trous présents à la surface des feuilles qui permettent les échanges d’eau et de gaz carbonique. La fermeture des stomates stoppe progressivement la transpiration.

Cependant, si la sécheresse se prolonge, la plante est exposée au phénomène d’embolie gazeuse, c’est-à-dire la pénétration d’air par cavitation dans les vaisseaux du xylème en dépression, interrompant la circulation de la sève. Un trop grand nombre de vaisseaux embolisés conduit au dépérissement de l’arbre.

Les plantes « crient » lors du dépérissement

« Lors de ces évènements critiques, les végétaux nous « parlent », explique Thierry Améglio, en émettant des ultrasons que nous pouvons déceler avec des appareils acoustiques adaptés. Ce phénomène est connu depuis les années 70, mais les progrès technologiques récents nous permettent d’aller plus loin ». Les chercheurs ont montré en particulier que ces émissions acoustiques se produisaient également lors de la prise en glace du xylème dans les arbres soumis à des cycles gels-dégels. Comme la sécheresse, le gel provoque des phénomènes d’embolie, car les gaz dissous dans la sève sont peu solubles dans la glace et forment des bulles d’air. C’est l’embolie hivernale.

En fait, les ultrasons émis par la plante ne sont mesurés que pendant le gel de la sève du xylème et non durant le dégel. C’est pourtant pendant le dégel que les bulles d’air grossissent et provoquent l’interruption de la circulation de sève. Il s’agirait donc d’un « cri d’alarme », anticipant l’embolie.

« Le progrès technologique nous permet de repousser un peu plus les limites de nos connaissances fondamentales dans un premier temps, conclut Thierry Ameglio, et devrait in fine conduire à de nouveaux détecteurs acoustiques pour « écouter » la langue des plantes et aider les chercheurs et les professionnels à sélectionner des espèces adaptées aux conditions climatiques du futur ».

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Forest, Grassland and Freshwater Ecology
Associated Centre(s):
Auvergne Rhône-Alpes

Référence

Ponomarenko A, Vincent O, Pietriga A, Cochard  H, Badel E, Marmottant P. 2014. Ultrasonic emissions reveal individual cavitation bubbles in water-stressed wood. Journal of the Royal Society Interface. rsif.royalsocietypublishing.org  J. R. Soc. Interface 11: 20140480