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puzzle. © shuttlecock

Modelling is everywhere

Can agricultural landscapes be designed to limit the spread of fungal epidemics?

A team of INRA scientists and partners, while studying pathogenic fungi epidemics, developed a simulation model which confirmed the importance of interspersing plots of resistant varieties among plots of vulnerable crops: doing this, instead of cultivating large swathes of resistant varieties, produces a less aggressive pathogen population.

By Catherine Foucaud-Scheunemann - Pascale Mollier, translated by Emma Morton-Saliou
Updated on 05/30/2013
Published on 04/15/2013

The intensification of agriculture has improved food production considerably in the last fifty years, but also had an increasing impact on the environment. In particular, the homogenization of agricultural landscapes has made our agroecosystems more vulnerable to epidemics. To fight these epidemics without resorting to the massive use of pesticides, scientists are exploring the possibilities of genetic resistance. It is important that pathogenic agents not overcome these resistant varieties too quickly, however, and shorten the life span of the latter excessively.

Simulating statistics

Scientists at INRA – epidemiologists, agronomists, mathematicians and social scientists – together with technical institutes (1), set out to understand how to best use disease-resistant varieties at the agricultural structure level. Should as many plots as possible be covered? Or is a mosaic, including other varieties, better? Should farmers alternate between different varieties from one year to the next? These questions yield complex answers which require a good understanding of the biological properties of these pests (their life cycle and dispersal abilities), of the genetic structure and evolution of pest populations, and of the available resistant genes in cultivated varieties.

Modelling for this research was largely based on data from the epidemiological monitoring wheat stem rust, but applies to the majority of foliage pests affecting widely-grown crops. Researchers took a two-step approach: first they developed a statistical model to ascertain links between landscape structure and variety resistance levels as can be measured in the field. They then used these results to build a model which simulates the spread of an epidemic according to the following parameters: levels of resistance of the varieties, the proportion of each variety used, and the degree of mixing within the landscape.

A mixed landscape selects less harmful pathogens...

The model takes into account several structuring strategies composed of two vulnerable varieties (covering 70 and 30% of the surface, respectively): mixed, mosaic or grouped.

Three different strategies for the distribution of two varieties in an agricultural landscape: mixed, mosaic and grouped. © INRA. © INRA
Three different strategies for the distribution of two varieties in an agricultural landscape: mixed, mosaic and grouped. © INRA © INRA

Results of the simulations showed that landscapes in which varieties are grouped tend to select highly specialised pathogens of each variety, while mixed strategy landscapes select non-specialised pathogens that, in principle, are less harmful to each variety.

...but can weaken resistance

In terms of how these different strategies affect a resistant variety and a vulnerable one, with one pathogenic genotype, results show that the mixed model slows the progress of the epidemic more than the grouped model, but also weakens resistance: the strength of the resistant variety diminishes over time. This may be because in mixed landscapes, the pockets of the resistant variety are submerged by pathogenic spores massively produced on neighbouring vulnerable plots. The approach is therefore beneficial to begin with but can worsen over time and finding a solution is not easy.

Combining several varieties

This study demonstrates that modifying the structure of landscapes over time is a potentially rewarding approach to reducing epidemic risk in agricultural settings. Researchers are currently exploring combinations of not two but several varieties, which should further improve the system through long-term management. Their findings illustrate a well-known principle in ecology: that improved biodiversity increases overall resistance to diseases.

Financial support for these studies was provided by ANR (the French National Research Agency) as part of its Gester project on disease resistance and new limits on the use of pesticides in large-scale farming.

See Christian Lannou’s presentation, given at a conference on modelling held on 16 November 2012 during the "Forums des labos" event hosted by INRA Versailles-Grignon:

Christian Lannou's presentation (in French)

(1) ARVALIS – Institut du végétal, and CETIOM.

Contact(s)
Scientific contact(s):

  • Christian Lannou UR1290 BIOGER CPP Biology and Management of Risks in Agriculture - Pathogenic Fungi of Plants
  • Hervé Monod UR0341 MIAJ Applied Mathematics and Informatics Research Unit
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Applied Mathematics and Informatics
Associated Centre(s):
Versailles-Grignon, Jouy-en-Josas

References

- Papaïx, J. et al. 2011. Influence of cultivated landscape composition on variety resistance: an assessment based on wheat leaf rust epidemics. New Phytologist 191: 1095-1107.

- Lannou, C. 2012. Variation and Selection of Quantitative Traits in Plant Pathogens. Annual Review of Phytopathology 50:319-338.