puzzle. © shuttlecock

Modelling is everywhere

Nutrition: understanding how the mouth tastes salt

Researchers at INRA Versailles-Grignon and AgroParisTech have revealed and modelled the process by which salt is released in the mouth and how the taste of salt is perceived. Their findings are a major step forward in the development of low-sodium food products. 

By Catherine Foucaud-Scheunemann, translated by Emma Morton-Saliou
Updated on 05/24/2013
Published on 04/15/2013

Cruet stand for condiments – salt, pepper, vinegar and oil. © INRA, Nathalie Mansion. © INRA, MANSION Nathalie
Cruet stand for condiments – salt, pepper, vinegar and oil. © INRA, Nathalie Mansion © INRA, MANSION Nathalie

A salty taste in food plays a central role in how we enjoy what we eat, but excess salt in our diets is implicated in heart disease. Lowering sodium levels in food without changing our sensory perception of it or the techniques by which it is made is a challenge for research and a major issue for the agri-food industry.

Salty tastes are stronger in a food that is highly fragmented in the mouth

Researchers developed a unique, mechanistic model to describe and quantify the characteristics of a product and of the individual which explain how salt is released in the mouth.

They began by conducting experiments to show that the determining factor in the release and perception of the flavour of a food is the area of contact between the product and saliva. The more a product is fragmented, the bigger the exchange surface. How a food breaks down depends on composition and texture, as well as on the consumer’s ability to break it down through chewing. An individual’s mastication efficiency can be measured in relation to a given product chewed for a given time.

Dairy products were used in the study. It was shown that the presence of fat weakens the protein structures in the food, making it more crumbly. This increases the exchange surfaces between the product and saliva and intensifies the perception of salt.

Formulating products for consumers between the ages of 7...and 77

Using this model, it is possible to develop new products for specific categories of consumers, such as babies and the elderly, whose chewing abilities differ. When chewing ability is weaker, as is the case in elderly people and small children, who tend to suck more than chew, a product can be made to break down more quickly by altering how it is made and what it contains. Low sodium foods can be formulated which still taste salty.

These results reflect an original approach to the issue of lowering salt content in food. It incorporates several experimental approaches, takes a novel look at what happens in the mouth, and involves model products with textures and structures that range from liquid to solid. The study’s findings show that the perception of salt is a multifactorial event that involves physicochemical interactions between constituents in the product matrix , structural and textural properties, physiological processes and perhaps even sensory interactions.

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Science for Food and Bioproduct Engineering
Associated Centre(s):
Versailles-Grignon

Excess salt in our diet...

In the agri-food industry, salt, or sodium chloride, is a key ingredient that is widely used in the composition of products and to guarantee satisfactory microbiological safety.  It also plays a fundamental role in the organoleptic quality of foods.  But when it is consumed in excessive quantities, salt acts as a factor favouring the development of cardiovascular diseases.  For this reason, health authorities – such as the World Health Organization – are working to achieve a reduction in the salt content of foods so as to reach the nutritional guideline level, which is currently fixed at 5 g/day, or two or three times less than the usual daily amount consumed in some developed countries, including France.