Síntomas de flavescencia dorada en cepa roja de Cabernet Sauvignon. © Sandrine Eveillard

Flavescencia dorada de la vid

Actualización: 20/06/2017
Publicación: 26/03/2013

El INRA, que ya era líder en los cincuenta en identificación del agente de la flavescencia dorada y de su insecto transmisor, ha realizado avances significativos en la biología de estos organismos. Con estos nuevos conocimientos, se ha podido crear un test de detección específica de esta enfermedad, y abrir pistas sobre métodos de lucha alternativos al uso de insecticidas. Actualmente, la flavescencia dorada es incurable. La única solución para detenerla es arrancar las cepas contaminadas y controlar las plantas de los viveros y la lucha insecticida contra el transmisor.

Un gran impacto agronómico

La flavescencia dorada es una enfermedad de cuarentena particularmente contagiosa e incurable en la vid. Se caracteriza por amarillear las hojas y el marchitamiento de la uva. La encontramos en la mayoría de las zonas de producción vitícola del sur de Europa, donde puede ocasionar grandes pérdidas de recolección y comprometer la perennidad de las viñas. Hoy en día, más de la mitad de la superficie de las viñas francesas están en zona de lucha obligatoria.

Un agente patógeno especial

Como otras enfermedades vegetales, la flavescencia dorada está causada por fitoplasmas, un tipo de bacterias sin paredes celulares de la clase de las Mollicutes. Son parásitos intracelulares obligatorios que se reproducen en el floema de las plantas y en los insectos picadores que se alimentan de ellos. El principal transmisor de los fitoplasmas de la flavescencia dorada es la Scaphoideus titanus. Al retirar el floema contaminado y alimentarse de otro pie, este insecto propaga la enfermedad en la viña, de manera análoga a la propagación de la malaria en personas por mosquitos anofeles. Pero la transmisión a larga distancia se debe al transporte realizado por las personas de material vegetal contaminado para la plantación.

La investigación es necesaria para encontrar tratamientos

Los medios de lucha actuales se basan en arrancar las cepas afectadas, la profilaxis del estado del estado sanitario de las plantas del vivero y los tratamientos insecticidas contra el transmisor. Estos tratamientos son obligatorios, contaminantes, caros y obstaculizan el proceso de reducción de pesticidas del sector vitícola. Además, estos planes de lucha obligatoria plantean grandes problemas a los viticultores comprometidos con la agricultura ecológica o en plena conversión hacia esta.
Por ello, a corto plazo es imprescindible proponer métodos para controlar mejor la lucha actual y desarrollar soluciones de lucha alternativas más económicas en insecticidas. Para ello es necesario conocer mejor el patógeno, el transmisor y los mecanismos que rigen las interacciones entre el fitoplasma, el insecto y la vid.

Una nueva dinámica de investigación en el centro INRA de Burdeos-Aquitania

En el INRA de Burdeos, dos unidades de investigación trabajan juntas en el sistema triangular de la flavescencia dorada: fitoplasma/insecto transmisor/vid. Una1 se dedica al fitoplasma: su origen, la evolución de las epidemias, y la interacción con sus huépedes (planta e insecto). La otra2 estudia el insecto transmisor, su comportamiento en relación con la planta huésped, la historia de su introducción y de su expansión en Europa.
1 Unidad Mixta de Investigación en Biología del Fruto y Patología (BFP 1332), equipo «Mollicutes».
2 Unidad Mixta de Investigación en Sanidad y Agroecoloía de la Vid (SAVE 1065).

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Plant Health and Environment
Centro asociado:
Nouvelle-Aquitaine-Bordeaux
Unidad asociada:
UMR1065 SAVE Sanidad y Agroecología de la Vid, UMR1332 BFP Biología del Fruto y Patología

EL INRA HA TENIDO UNA FUNCIÓN CLAVE EN EL ESTUDIO DE LA EPIDEMIA

Desde los años cincuenta, el INRA ha sido líder tanto en identificación de la naturaleza de la enfermedad como en el descubrimiento del transmisor. Los trabajos posteriores se dedicaron a luchar contra la flavescencia dorada y a comprender mejor los mecanismos que la regulan. El grueso de estas investigaciones se han llevado a cabo en Burdeos y Dijon. En el INRA de Sophia-Antipolis (Niza), se intentaron ensayos de lucha biológica pero sin éxito hasta la fecha.